The Mutual Defence Treaty was signed in 1951 and ratified in 1952 by the governments of the United States and the Philippines. The aim of the treaty was to strengthen the «fabric of peace» in the Pacific by formally adopting an agreement to defend each other`s territory in the event of an external attack.  In accordance with this treaty, the United States held several military bases in the Philippines, including Subic Bay Naval Base and Clark Air Base. In 1992, the bases were closed after the Philippine Senate rejected, by a close vote, a contract that would have extended the lease of the bases. The treaty was rejected because the United States was not prepared to set a fixed timetable for the withdrawal of troops and to ensure that no nuclear weapons would pass through the base.  The EDCA is in force for an initial period of ten years and will remain automatically in force thereafter, unless one of the parties terminates it by a one-year written notification through diplomatic channels of its intention to denounce the agreement (Article XII, Article 4, Article 4, EDCA). While U.S. forces can exercise operational control, deploy troops and equipment, build facilities and be housed in certain agreed locations, the Philippines retains ownership of the agreed sites (Article V, paragraph 1, EDCA). It is important that the United States is not allowed to establish permanent military bases and that once the agreement is reached, all facilities located on the «agreed sites» are transferred to the Philippine government.  The opposition movement in the Philippines eased after the expulsion of American personnel from the Philippines in the early 1990s. But it never really dissolved in its entirety. Anti-US sentiment remained a widespread social problem within the Metro Manila collegiate community and relatively small anti-US protests took place outside the United States. Message until the early 2000s.
 As a result of the unfortunate events around 11/11, the United States began to restructure and exercise its rights under the U.S. Defence Treaty as part of its war on terror which included sending U.S. forces to the Philippines as part of Operation Enduring Freedom – Philippines to advise and support the Philippine armed forces.  When the U.S. military and the Philippine armed forces began training and conducting counterterrorism missions in the Philippine archipelago, the anti-US atmosphere began to pick up slowly. Article V defines the significance of the attack and its purpose, which encompasses all attacks by an enemy power, is held as an attack on a metropolitan area by both parties or against the island territories under its jurisdiction in the Pacific or against its armed forces, public ships or aircraft in the Pacific.  Article VI states that this treaty does not infringe the rights and obligations of the parties under the Charter of the United Nations, obstructs or is not construed as an infringement.  Article VII stipulates that the treaty will be ratified in accordance with the constitutional procedures established by the United States Constitution and the Philippine Constitution.
 Finally, Article VIII provides that the contractual terms are indeterminate until one or both parties intend to denounce the agreement. If the contract is terminated, each party must terminate one year in advance.  The agreement allows U.S. forces, at the invitation of the Philippine government, to access and use designated areas and facilities owned and controlled by the Philippine armed forces. It clearly provides that the United States will not establish a permanent military presence or base in the Philippines and prohibits the entry of nuclear weapons into the Philippines.  The EDCA has an initial term of ten years and will remain in effect until its termination by one of the parties after an intention of one year of termination.  Disaster assistance and crisis response has become a major priority in the U.S.-Philippine security relationship, particularly after Typhoon Haiyan (Yolanda), and is an important impetus for the EDCA agreement. [Citation required] U.S. Marines were among the first to arrive in the Philippines after the devastating typhoon of 8 n